Did Halley's Comet appear at Lord Mahavir's Nirvan?

The year was 527 BC. Lord Mahavir was now 72 years of age, and forty-two years had passed since the beginning of his ascetic life. After attaining Kevalgyan (enlightenment), Lord Mahavir had tirelessly and selflessly given discourses; initiated thousands of monks and nuns and preached the gospel of Ahinsa to millions. Realizing that his Nirvan was near, he arrived at Apapapuri (Pawapuri, Bihar). On the dark night of Amavasya (new moon) in the month of October [Ashvin (Gujarati) / Kartik (Marvadi)], the Lord observed a fast for two days – without even taking water – and delivered his longest sermon lasting 48 hours before the four fold sangh which included rulers of various kingdoms in Malla, Licchavi, Kashi & Koshal regions. 

 All gazed at the Lord of the three worlds, who was seated in the lotus position before them, and drank in his every word. At the dawn of the Amavasya, Lord Mahavir entered into deep meditation, shed all the Aghati Karmas (non-destructive) and withdrew from his physical body; achieving the state of Nirvan (Moksha). At that very moment, an astronomical event occurred, which changed the fate of the entire Jain Sangh. This event is recorded in the Kalpasutra which states that -

जं रयणिं च णं समणे जाव सव्वदुक्खप्पहीणे
तं रयणिं च णं खुद्दाए नाम भासरासी महग्गहे दोवाससहस्सट्ठिई
समणस्स भगवओ महावीरस्स जम्मनक्खत्तं संकते (१२८)

जप्पभिइं च णं से खुद्दाए भासरासी दोवाससहस्सट्ठिई
समणस्स भगवओ महावीरस्स जम्मनक्खत्तं संकते,
तप्पभिइं च णं समणाणं निग्गंथाणं निग्गंथीणं
य नो उदिए पूयासक्कारे पवत्तइ (१२९)

जया णं से खुद्दाए जाव जम्मनक्खत्ताओ विइक्कंताओ
भविस्सति, तया णं समणाणं निग्गंथाणं निग्गंथीणं य उदिए २ पूयासक्कारे भविस्सइ (१३०)

Translated, it would mean: “On the night when Shraman Bhagwan Mahavir attained Nirvan and became free from the fetters of pain and misery, the great [planet/ star/ comet/ constellation] “Bhasmarasi Mahagrah” came into conjunction with the constellation of Bhagwan Mahavir’s birth. This event casted an evil influence on the Jain Sangh, leading to an oppression of the spiritual growth of the Jain monks and nuns for (next) 2,000 years.” 

A folio from Kalpasutra, depicting the Nirvan of Lord Mahavir (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Kalikalsarvagna Acharya Hemchandracharya also sheds further light on this incident in the Shri Mahavir Swami Charitra of Trishashtishalakapurushcharitra-

स्वामिनो मोक्षसमयं विज्ञायाऽऽसनकम्पत: । सुरासुरेन्द्रास्तत्रेयु: सर्वेऽपि सपरिच्छदा : ।।
सहस्त्राक्षोऽश्रुपूर्णाक्ष: प्रणम्याऽथ जगद्गुरुम् । विरचय्याऽञ्जलिं मूर्घ्नि ससंभ्रममदोऽवदत् ।।
गर्भे जन्मनि दीक्षायां केवले च तव प्रभो ! हस्तोत्तरर्क्षमधुना तूद्गन्ता भस्मकग्रह: ।।
विपद्यमानस्य जन्मऋक्षं क्रामन् स दुग्रह: । बाधिष्यते ते सन्तानं सहस्त्रे शरदामुभे ।।
प्रतिपालय तन्नाथ ! तस्य संक्रमणक्षणम् । स यथा त्वत्प्रभावेण विफलो भवति ग्रह : ।।
कुस्वप्ना: कुशकुनानी दुर्ग्रहा यान्ति शस्तताम् । अन्येषामपि सर्वेषां हृदि त्वां धारयन्ति ये ।।
किं पुनर्यत्र साक्षात्वं स्वामिन् ! समवतिष्ठसे?। प्रसीद तत् क्षणं तिष्ठ दुर्ग्रहोपशमोऽस्तु तत् ।।
स्वाम्यथोचे न कोऽप्यायुः शक्र ! संघातुमीश्वर: । विदन्नपि वदस्येवं किं तीर्थप्रेममोहित: ? ।।
प्रवर्तनाद् दु:षमायास्तीर्थबाधा भविष्यति । भवितव्यताऽनुसाराद् भस्मकस्योदयोप्यभूत् ।।

Shakrendra (Shakra Indra - the king of Indras) foresighting this event rushed to Bhagwan Mahavir and humbly prayed to him that “Bhasmakgrah” with a very ominous effect would be appearing on his birth nakshatra, at the time of his Nirvan. To stall the bad effect of “Bhasmakgrah”, Shakrendra prayed to Bhagwan Mahavir to delay or hasten the moment of his Nirvan to prevent the evil influence on sangh. To this, Bhagwan Mahavir replied: “No one is able to mend life; though you (Shakrendra) know this, why do you say such a thing, confused by your affection towards the Jain sangh? Oppression of the Jain Sangh will come from advancing Duḥṣama time cycle and the rising of Bhasmakgrah was in conformity with destiny.” 

The Antim Deshna (last discourse) of Lord Mahavir. Painting by Shri Gokuldas Kapadia

Therefore, the question arises, what was this “Bhasmarasi Grah” or “Bhasmakgrah” which occurred at the time of the Nirvan of Lord Mahavir, which was so ill fated that it affected the entire Jain Sangh for 2000 years! Sadly, not much research has been done on this subject, barring a hypothesis published by P.C. Chopra in 1985, based on which this article is written.

Jain scriptures bifurcate the astronomical stars into two categories – (1) Nakshatras – Stars which have no relative motion, i.e. constellations and (2) Grah – Stars which have relative motion, i.e. planets, satellites and comets. The Sthanang Sutra, Suryapragnapti and Tiloyapannatti record 88 names of Grah’s and the name of Bhasmarasi Grah occurs in Sthanang Sutra (apart from the Kalpasutra) which is one of the earliest dated Agams. The word “Bhasma” literally means “Ash” which suggests that the “Bhasmarasi grahappeared like a heap of Ash. Although, not mentioned specifically in the scriptures, this description of “Bhasmarasi grah” closely resembles that of a comet, as it is composed of ice, dust, and small rocky particles.

NASA also defines comets as frozen leftovers from the formation of the solar system that are composed of dust, rock and ices. They range from a few miles to tens of miles wide, but as they orbit closer to the sun, they heat up and spew gases as well as dust into a glowing head that can be larger than a planet. This material forms a tail that stretches millions of miles. Based on this description, an analysis based on three astronomical hypothesis’ (which are shared below), concludes that Bhasmarasi Grah was not just an ordinary comet, but a well-known one -known to the modern world as the “Halley’s Comet”

A photograph of Halley's Comet. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Halley's comet, is a mixture of volatile ices—such as water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—and dust. The comet has been observed and recorded by astronomers since at least 240 BC. Clear records of the comet's appearances were made by Chinese, Babylonian, and medieval European chroniclers, but at those times, these were not recognized as reappearances of the same object. The comet's periodicity was first determined in 1705 by English astronomer Edmond Halley, after whom it is now named. This "periodic" comet returns to Earth's vicinity about every 75 -79 years (mathematically ~76.15 years), making it possible for a human to see it twice in his or her lifetime. The last time it was visible in 1986, and it is projected to return in 2061.  Though there are no confirmed historical records of the appearance of the Halley’s comet before 240 BC, it can be safely concluded that the Halley’s comet appeared in 527 BC at the time of Nirvan of Lord Mahavir which is known as Bhasmarasi Grah in Jain scriptures based on the three astronomical hypothesis’ produced below-

1. Mathematical Model - If we prepare a backward chart of the appearance of Halley’s comet based on mathematical calculations, i.e. by deducting the average periodic return period (~76.15 years) from the last sighting onwards (in 1986) we can arrive at 527 BC in the 34th periodic sighting. (1986 - 1910 - 1834 - 1758 - 1681 - 1605 - 1529 - 1453 - 1377 - 1301 - 1225 - 1148 - 1072 - 996 - 920 - 844 - 768 - 691 - 615 - 539 - 463 - 387 - 311 - 235 - 158 - 82 - 6 AD - 70 BC - 146 BC - 222 BC - 299 BC - 375 BC - 451 BC - 527 BC).

Note: The detailed model as well as corresponding historical sightings have been provided at the end of the article.

2. Appearance of Uttara Phalguni Nakshatra The Kalpasutra as well as Trishashtishalakapurushcharitra state that Bhasmarasi Grah appeared during the birth nakshatra (constellation) of Lord Mahavir, i.e. Uttara Phalguni (Leonian). As the night of Nirvan was an Amavasya (new moon/ moonless night), the sun and moon were in the same constellation, i.e. Swati Nakshatra.

From this information, it can be derived based on astronomical calculations that the Uttara Phalguni Nakshatra appeared on the eastern horizon just two hours before sunrise on the day of Nirvan on Ashvin Vad Amavasya/ Kartik Krishna Amavasya in 527 BC. Simultaneously, the Bhasmarasi Grah (Halley’s comet) also appeared with it as per the scriptures.

Shri Samavayang Sutra states that Lord Mahavir attained Nirvan at the last quarter of the night (Antimraatiyansi), and the Kalpasutra also states that the time of Nirvan was Pratyushkal (4 ghadis, i.e. 3 hours before sunrise). It has been scientifically observed that the Halley's Comet travels in opposite direction to the direction of the Earth's revolution.  This concurs with the mathematical calculation based on the appearance of the Uttara Phalguni Nakshatra i.e. around 2 hours prior to sunrise.  Based on astronomical deductions, the path of Halley's comet on the night of Lord Mahavir's Nirvan crossed Uttara Phalguni nakshatra at ~4 AM which matches with the time of Nirvan as per scriptures.

Further, by simulating the night sky (through an astronomical software) on the date of Aso (Ashwin) Amavasya on 527 BC, it was seen that Halley's comment was rising on the eastern horizon*.

Night sky simulation*

3. Meteoric Shower– The Earth crosses the orbital plane of Halley’s comet twice a year – once in May and another in October. During these crossings, the earth experiences meteorite showers due to the left out matter in the orbit by the Halley’s comet during previous visits. The matter is attracted or pulled by the Earth’s gravitation in the form of meteors. The crossing during the month of May takes place during the day whereas the meteor shower takes place during night in the month of October making it visible to the naked eye.

The Trishashtishalakapurushcharitra states that after the Nirvan of Lord Mahavir, all the kings present at Apapapuri (Pawapuri) illuminated the town with lamps symbolically, as the light of knowledge had been extinguished. Harivansh Puran by Acharya Jinsen also states that the demi-gods (Devas) also illuminated the skies to mark the occasion. According to this hypothesis, this illumination could be the meteoric shower which also took place in the month of October in the year 527 BC, corroborating the event with the scriptures. 

The Nirvan of Lord Mahavir. Painting by Shri Gokuldas Kapadia

Based on these three hypothesis', it can be assumed that the Bhasmarasi Grah was infact the Halley’s comet. This analysis it is not just a conjecture but a well defined hypothesis based on scientific, mathematical as well as astronomical calculations. Had William Shakespeare been alive today, he would have been much happier to learn about this event, which establishes the truth of his famous ‘adage’ appearing in his work “Julius Ceaser”-

"When beggars die there are no comets seen; The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes.”


*The author is thankful to Shri Mehul Gala for providing the night sky simulation.

Footnote - Detailed Mathematical model as well as corresponding historical sightings of Halley's comet-


  1. I knew that this was coming but don't agree to assumption of Halley's comet being Bhasmakgrah. Halley isn't the only 1 comet which reoccurs, there are multiple ones which keep on occuring and all together are known as Halley types. Proper name of Halley's comet is 1P/Halley. There are various more and 14 are known to us of that list.

    For example - there's one more by name 12P/Pons-Brooks which too is visible every 70.85 years appx and if you carry out same mathematical calculations - same too appeared around 526/527BC.

    List is numerous and universe is vast, TATTVA KEVALI GAMYA so I don't feel that 1P/Halley I. E. Halley's comet is that Bhasmakgrah.

    1. Obviously, this is just a hypothesis. But please also note that the day (Hypothesis 1) as well as timing (Hypothesis 2) matches exactly with the path of Halley's comet.

  2. Amazing research dear, I really appreciate your work and willingness for research in the field of Jainism.
    I have read your other articles too.. all are written like a masterpiece.
    Best wishes and blessings..

  3. Utsutra bolvathi bhav sansar vadhe che. Shastra clearly says bhasmaka graha is 30th of total 88 planets. Dipawali ni raatri e *udhyot* dev viman na aava gaman na karane hato...devta na lidhe illuminated raatri ne meteor shower saathe sarkhavi e yogya nathi. Aama Shri Tirthankar Bhagwan ni aasatna che. Bhagwan na kalyanak samaye trane lok na udyot thaay che. E prakash ne meteor showers sathe jodva no forceful abhipraaya samaj thi pare che. Gujarati *dev vandan mala* na deepawali na dev vandan ma pan aano khulaso madi re em che . As Samit bhai posted above the calculations given here can be applied to various such comet citings. The thing is you have created a name by doing some beautiful research previously so people might take your word at face value. You have used a question mark in the title so at least you have opened door for skepticism, but persuasive writing like this which belittle the clear mentions in scriptures are unbecoming of an author like you.

    1. Thank you for your views. However, I presume that you have not yet read the post properly. I have used the word 'hypothesis' 6 times in this article. It's a mathematical as well as an astronomical hypothesis which has been corroborated with the scriptural evidences.

      Secondly, I presume you are yet to read the Kalpasutra as well as Trishashtishalakapurush Chartitra. In both the texts it is nowhere mentioned that "Dipawali ni raatri e *udhyot* dev viman na aava gaman na karane hato". In both the texts it is specifically mentioned that only the Kings illuminated lamps. Harivanshpuran, which is a Digambar scripture, mentions that the demi gods had illuminated the skies (that too not because of dev viman na ava gaman - as per your theory). And please do not give references of later texts which were created only a few centuries ago.

      Thirdly, learn to respect views of others. As you said Samir bhai also disagreed with my views- that's completely fine. This is just a hypothesis. You are free to disagree with me but that does not mean that it is Utsutra Prarupana.

  4. 1. Param pavitra Kalpasutra ne sansaari loko ne vaanchvanu vidhan nathi e aap jaanta j haso
    Etle aape kalpasutra main vaanchyu nathi em je lakhyu che te kem e samjayu nai
    Je shravak na adhikar kheshtra ma na hoy e vastu karvani hotij nathi
    2. Shri Kalpasutra no Shri Gyanvimalsuriji rachit bhas che je samasta jain sangh ma paryushan na divaso ma vaanchay che. E bhas ni mul kruti ma *grah* j lakhyo che ne dipawali na pragtya ni vaat pan che. Shri Gyanvimal suriji ne Shri Laxmisuriji aadi mahatma na grantho sangh ma pramanaj manay che karan ke emne sutra bahar nu lakhyu nathi.
    3 utsutra prarupna karvathi bhav sansaar vadhe e shastra vachan che etle lakhyu
    Aapne udesshi ne nai.

    If you have read my comment I did concede that *you have put a question mark in the title* which means you are stating your view so disrespecting it is out of question. I also mentioned that many of your previous articles are well written and are appreciated. So "learn to respect others' views" does not hold much ground.

    It was just an honest take on persuasive writing.

    Hope this helps and takes away any ill feelings you have garnered because of insinuation

    I have been an avid reader of your blog but it seems criticism irks you so wont bother next time

    Good luck

    1. હું ભલી-ભાંતિ જાણું છું કે સંસારીઓને શ્રી કલ્પસૂત્ર વાંચવાનો અધિકાર નથી, પણ આપે જે રીતે આત્મવિશ્વાસ સાથે કહ્યું કે પ્રભુ નિર્વાણની રાતે આકાશમાં ઉદ્યોત, દેવવિમાનો દ્વારા થયો એટલે જાણવું જરૂરી લાગ્યું કારણ કે કલ્પસૂત્ર તથા ત્રિષષ્ટિશલાકાપુરુષચરિત્રમાં આવું કોઈ વર્ણન કરવામાં નથી આવ્યું.

      હું જાણું છું આપે કલ્પસૂત્રના શ્રવણના અધિકાર વિષે વાત માત્ર વાદ કરવા કહી છે. કારણ કે મે બન્ને ગ્રંથોના નામ આપ્યા હતા - માત્ર કલ્પસૂત્ર નહિ પણ ત્રિષષ્ટિશલાકાપુરુષચરિત્રનું પણ નામ આપ્યું હતું જેને વાંચવા માટે શ્રાવકોને અધિકાર છે.

      મારા ધ્યાન મુજબ શ્રાવકો એવી ઘણી બધી ધર્મ ક્રિયા કરી રહ્યા છે જેનો તેમને અધિકાર નથી. આપ જાણતાજ હશો કે શ્રી મહાનિશિથ સૂત્રમાં જણાવ્યું છે કે ઉપધાન તપ કર્યા વગર જો કોઈ પરમ પવિત્ર નમસ્કાર મહામંત્ર ભણે તો તે અનંત સંસારી થાય છે. આપ ચુસ્ત શ્રાવક લાગો છો કેમકે આપે જણાવ્યું કે “જે શ્રાવકના અધિકાર ક્ષેત્રમાં ના હોય એ વસ્તુ કરવાની હોતીજ નથી”. આશા કરું છું આપે આપના જીવનમાં શ્રી નમસ્કાર મહામંત્રનું પ્રથમવાર સ્મરણ કરતા પહેલા ઉપધાન તપ આદર્યો હશે...કારણ કે તેના વગર તો નવકાર બોલવાનો પણ શ્રવાકોને અધિકાર નથી.

      આ તો રહી શ્રાવકના અધિકારોની વાત. મારા જાણ મુજબ જયારે ગુરુમહારાજની હાજરી હોય ત્યારે સંપૂર્ણ બારસાસૂત્ર (પર્યુષણકલ્પ) વંચાય છે તથા જયારે ગુરુમહારાજની હાજરી ન હોય તો કલ્પસૂત્રના ઢાળિયા વંચાય છે. જે મૂળ કૃતિની વાત આપે કરી છે તેમાં આપે કહ્યા મુજબ "ગ્રહ" શબ્દ વાપર્યો છે. હું પણ તેના થી સહમત છું - પણ આગમિક વ્યાકરણમાં ગ્રહનો અર્થ ઘણો વિશાળ છે જેમાં planets , સટેલલિતએસ તથા comets ત્રણેયનો સરવાળો કરવામાં આવ્યો છે. "ધૂમકેતુ" ને પણ ગ્રહ કહેવામાં આવ્યો છે.

      હવે વાત criticism ની તો constructive criticism હોવીજ જોઈએ (જેમ સમીરભાઈ એ પહેલી કમેન્ટમાં જણાવ્યું) - પણ આપ મારા hypothesis ને "persuasive writing" નો tag આપો તે વાત થી હું સહમત નથી. મેં કોઈને એમ નથી જણાવ્યું કે મારી વાત સાચી છે - આ માત્ર એક hypothesis છે જેના ગણિત, જ્યોતિષ તથા શાસ્ત્રીય પ્રમાણો મળતા આવે છે.

    2. Bhagyashali aape je mahanishith sutra ni vaat kari to aapni pase gatha hoy to share karso? Saathe bhashya ne churni no gatha kramank jo hoy to ghanu saru. Aa granth aapde to vanchva na adhikari nathi ne sadhu bhagwant pan yog kariya thi aani anugyna prapt kare che . Aape kadach guru gam thi aa jaanyu hoy to mari saathe khali gatha ke paath share karso? Mare pan aa gaatha no aidampyartha pujya gitarth guru bhagwanto pase samjvo che. Aabhar

    3. મને આપની વાત સાચ્ચે હાસ્યપદ લાગે છે કારણ કે જેમ આપે જણાવ્યું કે આપને ગાથાનો અર્થ, ગીતાર્થ ગુરુભગવંત પાસે સમજવો છે તો પછી મને ગાથા નો ક્રમાંક કેમ પૂછો છો? ગીતાર્થ ગુરુભગવંતને ગાથાના ક્રમાંકની આવશ્યકતા ના પડે કારણકે તેઓને કંઠસ્થ હોય :D

      કદાચ આપને લાગતું હશે કે મેં આ વાત મનઘડંત રૂપે બનાવી છે એટલે માત્ર આપની સંતુષ્ટિ માટે શ્રી મહાનિશીથ સૂત્રની ગાથા ક્રમાંક આપું છું - અધ્યયન ત્રીજું (કુશીલ લક્ષણ) સૂત્ર - 490, 491, 492, 493, 592, 599, 600, 602, 604.

      આપના માટે relevant પાઠનું translation કરી આપુ છું -

      પ્રભુ શ્રી મહાવીર શ્રી ગૌતમ ગણધરને ફરમાવે છે કે - હે ગૌતમ ! આવી મોટી નિયંત્રણા નહિ ઇચ્છતા, વગર ઉપધાને નવકાર મંત્ર ભણે, ભણાવે કે ભણતાને અનુમત કરે તે વ્યક્તિ પ્રિયધર્મા કે દ્રઢધર્મા ન હોય અને તેણે સૂત્રાર્થ તથા ગુરુની હીલના કરી તથા સર્વ અરિહંત અને આચાર્ય, ઉપાધ્યાય, સાધુ અને જ્ઞાનની પણ આશાતના કરી; જેથી તે અનંત સંસારી થઇ અનેક દુઃખ પામશે .

      શાસ્ત્રોમાં 6 ઉપધાન બતાવ્યા છે -

      1. પ્રથમ ઉપધાન પંચમંગળ મહાશ્રુતસ્કન્ધ નવકારનું
      2. બીજું ઉપધાન - પ્રતિક્રમણ શ્રુતસ્કન્ધનું - ઇરિયાવહી, તસ્સ ઉતરીનું
      3. ત્રીજું ઉપધાન - શક્રસ્તવાધ્યયનનું (નમુથ્થુણં),
      4. ચોથું ઉપધાન -ચૈત્યસ્તવાધ્યયનનું (અરિહંત ચેઇયાંણં, અન્નત્થ)
      5. પાંચમું ઉપધાન - નામસ્તવાધ્યયનનું (લોગસ્સ)
      6. છટ્ઠુ ઉપધાન - શ્રુતસ્તવ સિદ્ધસ્તવાધ્યયનનું (પુખ્ખરવરદી અને સિદ્ધાણં બુદ્ધાણં)

      આ બધા સૂત્રો ના અધિકાર માટે ઉપધાન આવશ્યક છે

  5. Aapne hasyaspad laage eno vaandho nai. Ne mari majak udavo eno pan nahi. Maro karmakshya j thaay che.

    Aape kramank aapyo eno aabhar. Hun e cite karine ne pucchi ne mari jigyanasa trupt kari lais.


    1. I think that you are making a mockery of mine as you wish to ask the meaning from Guru Maharaj, but want to know the gathas from me...It is very obvious that Guru Maharaj would not require any citation/ reference as they have memorized the entire content.

    2. Evo koi irado nahto chhata aapni laagni dubhai hoy to micchami dukkadam. Samvatsari aavta mahine maathe che. Aapne khotu laagyu hoy to eni shramapana bhagyshali

    3. Pranam....
      Arpit bhai I really like your writing, actually all of your work.
      But, here I would like to really praise both of you Arpit bhai n Veeral bhai. Debate between both of you shows your affection to jain sangh, prabhu Mahavir and shrut gyan. I really don't know among you people who is right, no clues, but really amazed to see both of your knowledge and adherence. I really think none of you in any way ment to insult, mock or defame each other. Tatva charcha will bring different views to us and sometimes that views may question us, may be hurt us and that is completely normal. We just need to move on and solve differences. We are not perfect, none existing, and final decision can be obtained based on kevalgyanis only.

    4. Pranam Yash,

      Thank you for your kind words. I do not wish to insult mock or defame anyone. I apologise for being sarcastic in the above comments. I just wanted to convey 2 points-
      1. I am not into persuasive writing and I stated that it is a hypothesis upfront
      2. If Shri Veeral wanted to know the facts from Guru Maharaj, there was no point of knowing the references from me.

    5. I know that you both don't meant.....it's just misunderstanding due to mode of communication, i guess.

  6. This is absolutely Grade A kind of a research only a person with a tremendous quest to thrive into the deeper science of Jainism can do or partake. Fortunate enough to hit this blog while searching for Sri Vidya & ended up with Sri Siddha Chakra bhagwan elaborations by you. I am intrigued by the profound power & secrets Jainism holds with itself. Possibly because the pancham ara has humans with lower conscience & can misuse it, all our scriptures have been kept wrapped or secluded from the general public. I wish there are works done towards researching on Aagams.

    Tremendous work Arpit ! Shine on !

    1. Thank you so much ! Glad you found the blog informative. Will strive to do better :)


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