Yapaniya - The lost sect of Jains

12th Century idol of Shri Adinath Bhagwan at Hubli installed by monks of Kareya Gana of Yapaniya sect. (Source: Times of India)


Currently, the two primary sects of Jainism are known to the general public viz. Shwetambars and Digambars. However, there was an influential sect known as 'Yapaniya' which existed from the 2nd century AD until the 15th century (about 1400 years) in Southern regions of India. Although there are no adherents of the 'Yapaniya' sect today, their temples, idols, and contributions to Jain literature still survive and play a significant role in narrating the ancient Jain heritage.

Various names are available for the Yapaniyas viz., Japaniya, Yapani, Apaniya, Yapuliya, Apuliya, Japuli, Javuliya, Javiliya, Jialiya, Javaligeya etc. It was also known as Goupya Sangha. The Yapaniya sect adapted traditions from both the Shwetambars and Digambars and was therefore a bridge between the two divergent sects. The locations of the Yapaniya sect's evidences indicate that the sect held prominence mostly in the present-day North Karnataka and South Maharashtra.


There are two different references regarding the origin of the Yapaniya sect in the Digambar tradition, while no references to its origins are found in Shwetambar scriptures. The divergent tales of its origins are discussed below-

1. Digambar Acharya Devsen, who compiled the scripture ‘Darshanasar’ in 909 AD mentions that a Shwetambar monk named Shrikalash started the Yapaniya sect in the town of Kalyan, 205 years after the death of king Vikramaditya (i.e. 2nd century AD)[1].

2. Digambar Bhattarak[2] Ratnanandi in 1450 AD in his work Bhadrabahucharita states the origin of the Yapaniya sect as below- King Bhupal ruled the region of Karahaṭaka. His queen Nrukul- devi once told the king that her Gurus (Jain monks) from her paternal town should be requested to come over for the glorification of the religious rites. The king, accordingly, sent his minister Buddhisagar who brought those monks after great requests. After their arrival, the king went forth to receive them with pomp; but when he saw them from a distance and found that they were not naked monks, and were equipped with white clothes, a bowl and a stick, he returned home without offering respects to them and told his wife that her Gurus were heretics. The queen hurried to those monks and requested them to give up their white clothes. They gave up their old robes and went naked with a water-gourd and a bunch-of-feathers. Then the king approached and received them with due decorum. The monks, though Digambar in form, continued the practices of Shwetambars: it is they who formed the Yapaniya sect[3].

Since however, both the references have been composed very late, not much reliance can be placed on it. However, both the references infer that the original affiliation of the Yapaniyas was with the Shwetambars. Although, no direct references of the origins of Yapaniya sect are found in Shwetambar scriptures, modern day scholars like Dr. Sagarmal Jain (1932-2020) [4] and Dalsukh Malvania (1910-2000) [5] have opined that Yapaniyas were  actually the members of the ‘Botik’ sect as mentioned in Shwetambar scriptures which was started by Shivbhuti in 82 AD[6]. However, this interpretation is not accepted by a majority of Shwetambar monks and Digambar scholars like Prof. (Dr.) Ratanchandra Jain[7] as Botik was used as a synonym for Digambars.

Brahmi inscription from Parkala, Karnataka engraved on a circular laterite tablet from Prof. P. N. Narasimha Murthy, Udupi. It is written in Prakrit language and Brahmi characters of 4th century A.D.  It contains three lines, reading: (1) [Ya]panīya, (2) Yapanīya, and (3) Avanīya. Source: Dr. Muniratnam,Director I/C ASI Epigraphy/ & Ms. Mital Lalan (www.facebook.com/jainismrevival)

Practices & Philosophies

The Yapaniyas took some of the important philosophies of both the Shwetambar and Digambar sects and incorporated them in their practices. Digambar Bhattarak Ratnanandi in Bhadrabahucharita stated that although the outer appearance of Yapaniyas was similar to Digambars, they followed the conduct of the Shwetambars[8].

Yapaniyas worshipped idols of Tirthankars without any depiction of clothes like Digambars, and their monks remained naked, but under exceptional situations they allowed monks to wear clothes. According to Bhagwati Aradhana, the main path to salvation (Utsarg marg) was 'achelaktva' (nudity), whereas 'sachelaktva' (wearing clothes) could only be utilised as an exception (Apvad marg). [9] This scripture was composed by Acharya Shivarya (~3rd-5th Century AD) who was probably a Yapaniya monk according to Digambar scholar Pt. Nathuram Premi (1881-1960) and Dr. Sagarmal Jain (as various verses were not in line with Digambar tradition) [9a]

 According to ‘Strinirvanprakaran’ by Palyakirti Shaktayan (9th Century AD), Yapaniya monks used cover themselves with blankets or sheets to protect themselves from cold and wore clothes in case of diseases like haemorrhoids and fistula etc[10]. Alike Digambars, the Yapaniya monks took their food, by the use of palms joined together to serve as a plate.

Although Aparajit Muni’s commentary (Tika) of Bhagwati Aradhana recognizes 14 upkarans for monks, but only a 'pratilekhana' (broom made of fallen peacock feathers for removing small insects to avoid causing injury) and a ‘patra’ (Gourd bowl for carrying water for cleaning purposes) were allowed to be used by monks. The rest could only be used under exceptional circumstances[11]. Yapaniya monks blessed the saluting devotees with the words "Satdharma Vruddhirastu" (may true religion thrive). [11a]

A Digambar monk, Shrutsagarsuri (16th Century AD) in his commentary (tika) of Darshanprabhut (Dansanpahud) mentions that Yapaniyas believed in the following philosophies which are against the Digambar tradition but in line with Shwetambar tradition -

(i) Strinam tad-bhave mokshah – i.e. a woman can attain salvation in the same birth

(ii) Parshasan mokshah – i.e. the followers of the other doctrines can also attain salvation, and

(iii) Sagranth mokshah – i.e. cloth bearers (cloth bearer monks and householders) can also attain salvation[12]

In 8th Century, a Shwetambar Acharya, Haribhadrasuri in his scripture Lalitvistara quoted a Yapaniya scripture named “Yapaniya tantra” and mentioned that Yapaniyas believed in Stri Mukti (liberation of women in same birth)[13].

Further, Shwetambar Acharya Gunratnasuri, (14th Century AD) in his commentary of Shad Darshan Samucchaya mentioned that Digambars were divided into four sanghas namely, Kastha, Mula, Mathura, and Gopya or Yapaniya. Alike Digambars, Yapaniya monks remained nude, used a Mayurpicchi (broom made of fallen peacock feathers), ate out of hands and worshipped unclothed idols of Tirthankars. However, alike Shwetambars, they believed that women could attain liberation in the same birth, Kevalis (enlightened/ omniscient) consumed food, cloth bearers and followers of the other doctrines could also attain salvation[14].

Major Ganas (group of monks travelling under its head) of Yapaniyas included Kumuligana (or Kumudigana), (Koți) Maduvagana, Kandur or Kanurgana, Punnaga- vrukshmula-gana, Vandiyura-gaṇa, Kareyagana and Nandigaccha and Mailapanvaya.

Image of Shri Parshwanath Bhagwan from Makodu Village of Mysore District which was installed by monks of Javaligeya (Yapaniya) sect. (Source: Bangalore Mirror/S Shyam Prasad - Facebook)


Shwetambar Acharya Malaygiri in his commentary of Nandisutra (composed in 12th century AD), mentions that the famous grammarian and Acharya Palyakirti Shaktayan (9th Century AD) was a Yapaniya monk[15]. Shaktayan in his Amoghvritti (commentary of his own Sanskrit grammar work Shabdanushasan), mentions that Avashyak Sutra, Chedsutra, Niryukti and Dashvaikalik Sutra were the scriptures used by the Yapaniyas[16]. A Digambar monk, Shrutsagar (16th Century AD) in his commentary (tika) of Darshanprabhut (Dansanpahud) mentions that Yapaniyas used to read Kalpasutra during Paryushan

Bhagwati Aradhana also mentions the composition of commentary on Dashvaikalik Sutra. All these scriptures pertain to the Shwetambar sect. Therefore, unlike Digambars, Yapaniyas did not believe that the Agams became extinct. As discussed earlier in this article, both Acharya Devsen and Bhattarak Ratnanandi had noted that Yapaniyas emerged from Shwetambar sect, therefore all the findings indicate that the Yapaniyas used the Shwetambar Agams, as there was nothing against their principal doctrines in these works (Shwetambar Anga Agams did not prohibit nudity among monks and noted that a physically fit young monk should keep only one cloth and those monks who can win over shyness/ shame (lajja) and can bear the cold, heat and insect bites etc. should remain naked[17])

Further, there are references to Yapaniya tantra by Acharya Haribhadrasuri in Lalitvistara, but no such tantra found at present. Shaktayan besides his Sanskrit grammar work (Shabdanushasan), composed two independent scriptures namely Strinirvanprakaran and Kevalibhuktiprakaran which advocated the liberation of females in the same birth and the consumption of food by Kevalis etc.

According to Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Shwetambar Agams like Shri Acharang Sutra, Shri Sutrakrutang Sutra, Shri Gyatadharmakatha Sutra, Shri Uttaradhyayan Sutra, Shri Dashavaikalik Sutra, Shri Dashashrutskandh, Shri Brihatkalpsutra, Shri Nishith sutra, Shri Jeetkalpasutra, Shri Vyavahar Sutra, Shri Avayshyak Sutra etc, were used by Yapaniyas.[18] Other scholars, Pt. Nathuram Premi and Pt. Kailashchandra Jain (1903-1972?) also agreed that Yapaniyas used the Shwetambar Agams for their religious purposes[19].

To determine whether a scripture belongs to the Yapaniya sect or not, Dr. Sagarmal Jain had listed 10 tests (which have been presented in the references at the end of this article in footnotes) [19a]. Based on these tests, Dr. Sagarmal Jain also opined that Kasaypahud, Shatkhandagam, Bhagwati Aradhana by Acharya Shivarya, Brihatkathakosh by Harishen, Harivanshpuran by Jinsen, Aparajit Muni’s commentary (Tika) of Bhagwati Aradhana, Paumchariu by Svayambhu, Varangcharitra by Jatasinhanandi etc. which are currently attributed to the Digambar sect were actually Yapaniya scriptures[20].  Pt. Nathuram Premi also suggested that Acharya Shivarya (who composed Bhagwati Aradhana in Prakrit) and Aparajitasuri (who wrote a commentary of Bhagwati Aradhana in Sanskrit) might have belonged to the Yapaniya sect as some of the contexts in their works are not consistent either with the Shwetambar or Digambar views [9a]..  Dr. Sagarmal Jain concluded that Mulachar was a Yapaniya scripture, as it mentions the process of Updhan for study of Agams which is even practiced in the Shwetambar tradition till date[21].

Scholars like Pt. Nathuram Premi[22], Dr. Sagarmal Jain[23] and Dr. A.N. Upadhye (1906-1975) [24] believed that there were various valid reasons why Acharya Umasvati could have belonged to the Yapaniya Sangha and thus Shri Tattvarthasutra could have been a Yapaniya scripture (and not a Shwetambar or a Digambar scripture as claimed by both the sects). However, Dr. (Prof.) Ratanchandra Jain had listed 17 tests which have also been presented in the references at the end of this article (as against 10 tests by Dr. Sagarmal Jain) [19a].  Therefore these interpretations are not accepted by various Digambar monks and scholars[25].
Three Tirthankar idols on the same pedestal at Karla village, Dist. Latur (Maharashtra) installed by monks of the Kanurgana of the Yapaniya sect. (Source: Jainmandir.org)

Royal Patronage

The Yapaniyas adopted reformist attitudes and their popularity for some time in Karnataka, was due to the flexibility in their religious precepts, grant of minor concessions to other creeds, introduction of Yaksha-Yakshi worship, encouragement to women to enter into the monastic order and establishment of religious institutions owing to the generous grants from the rulers and the public. The Yapaniya sect received and enjoyed royal patronage in areas of North Karnataka and southern Maharashtra basis various inscriptional evidences available today. Major inscriptions have been discussed below-

i. One of the earliest references of a royal grant to the Yapaniya sect is found in the copper plate inscription of Kadamba ruler Mrigeshvarman (475 to 490 AD) dated in the eighth year of the reign of Mrigeshvarman (483 AD) records that the king, through the devotion of his father Shantivaravarman, had built a Jain temple (Jinalay) at Palasika. He then granted thirty-three of land from the river Matrasarita to the confluence of rivers called Ingiṇisangam for supporting Yapaniyas, Nirgranths and Kurchaks[27]. His son Ravivarma (497-537 AD) also made a grant of a village, out of the income of which the Puja etc. were to be performed and the Yapaniya ascetics to be fed for four months of Chaturmas[28].

ii. Another inscription mentions that Kadamba royal family member Devavarman, (475-480 AD) the son of Krishnavarman  granted 12 nivartanas of land (One nivartana roughly equal to an acre and a half) in a village named Siddhakedara to the Yapaniya sect for the purpose of worship at a temple (chaityalay) and for its maintenance and repairs[26]

iii. The Kadamba plates of 812 AD inform that the Rashtrakuta king Prabhutvarsha himself made a donation in favour of a temple presided over by a monk named Arkakirti, of the Yapaniya sect. The inscription adds that Arkakirti successfully treated Vimaladitya, the Governor of Kunnigila Desh, who was suffering from the evil influence of Saturn[29].

iv. Amma (II) of the Eastern Calukya dynasty (947 – 970 AD) made a grant of the village Maliya pundi (in Andhra) for the benefit of a Jain temple. The monk in charge of it was Srimandirdev, the disciple of Divakar and grand-disciple of Jinanandi of the Yapaniya Sangha, (Koți) Maduva-gana and Punyaruha Nandi Gaccha[30].

v. The Saudatti (Sugandhavartti) inscription of AD 980 opens with the mention of Tailapadeva of the Chalukya dynasty. Shantivarma and his queen Chandakabbe are specified. The donation of the land is made by Shantivarma for the Jain temple built by him and the inscription adds the monks of the Yapaniya sect and Kandurgana[31]

vi. The Mugad inscription (Dharwad district) of the Goa Kadamba King Chattayyadeva II (1045 A.D.), the feudatory of the Chalukya monarch Trailokyamalla Ahavamalla, refers to the Yapaniya Sangha and Kumudigana. It also gives a long list of Yapaniya monks are highly praised with reference to their profound learning and exemplary conduct. The grant given to Samyaktavaratnakara Chaityalaya built by Chavunda for the maintenance and repair of the temple, is also referred to in the inscription[32].

vii. The Alnavar (Dharwad taluka) inscription of 1081 AD, belonging to the reign of Govaladeva III, son of Jayakesi I of the Goa Kadamba family, refers to the construction of a Jinalay (Jain temple in the capital town Anilapura (Alnavar) by Narasimhasetti. It also refers to the Jain order and sub-divisions like the Yapaniya, Mailapanvaya and Kareya-gana[33].

viii. A mutilated epigraph of 1147-48 AD, belonging to the period of the Kadamba ruler Permadideva, found in the Bammigatti village (Kalghatagi taluka) records the construction of a Jain temple and grant made to this temple by Simgana, a minister of Maha-Samanta Suriyamayya of Bharanipura (Bammigatti). Monks belonging to the Yapaniya sect and Kanduragana, are mentioned in the inscriptions.[34]

ix. Managundi (Dharwad taluka) inscription of the period of Jayakesi III (13th century A.D.) records the grant of land and house sites by Tippagavunda, the master of the village Manigumdi and others, to the Nagar Jinalay for the eight fold (Ashtaprakari) worship of the Tirthankar, for the maintenance of the temple and for the food of the ascetics. It also refers to the Yapaniya Sangha and Kareyagana. This inscription which describes the donation made by the Brahmins to the Nagar Jinalay reveals the religious harmony that existed among the followers of different religious faiths[35].
Copper plates - Kadamba grants of Mrigeshvarman (Source: The-Indian-Antiquary,Vol. VII)

Major Centres

A large number of references to the Yapaniyas found in the epigraphs, evidently show its impact on the Jains of Karnataka that led to the development of several important religious centres, such as-

1. Adaragunchi, Alnavar, B.Shigikatti, Bammigatti, Doni, Garag, Hebballi Hosur, Javur, Malkankoppa, Mangundi, Morab, Mugad, Muttagi, Navalgund, Narendra and Shirur in Dharwad District.

2. Badli, Belgaum, Eksambi, Halasi, Hannikeri, Hosur, Hukeri, Huli, Kalbhavi and Saundatti, Kagavad, Rayabag, Monoli, Honnur in Belgaum District.

3. Aihole, Hullur and Marol in the Bijapur District.

4. Adaki, Sedam and Tengali in the Gulburga District.

5. Silagrama and Siddhakedara in the Tumkur District.

Dharwad, Belgaum and Gulbarga districts of North Karnataka were the two strong- holds of the Yapaniya monks[36]. The number of records found in Andhra and Tamil Nadu are also very small and no records of Yapaniya sect have been identified at Shravanabelagola so far.

Jain idols excavated in Hupari, Kolhapur (Maharashtra). The inscription mentions the monk lineage of Punnagavruksha mulagana of the Yapaniya sect. [Source - Ms. Mital Lalan (www.facebook.com/jainismrevival)]


The Yapaniyas were looked down upon as Jainabhasas (pseudo-Jains/ heretic creed) by some of the Digambar monks. Digambar Bhattarak Indranandi (11th Century AD), in his work ‘Nitisar included Yapaniyas under five false sects (Gopuchchik, Shvetvasa, Dravida, Yapaniya and Nipichchak)[37].

In 16th Century AD, Digambar monk Shrutsagarsuri in his commentary of Bodhpahud made many remarks against Yapaniyas and stated that the idols installed by them, although without the depiction of clothes and nude should not be worshipped.[38]

Gradually, the members of Yapaniya sect dwindled after 13th Century and from the epigraphical evidence it seems to have survived till the end of the 14th century AD. An inscription found in the Jain temple at Kagwad of the Belgaum district, refers to the samadhi maran of two Yapaniya monks named Dharmakirti and Nagachandra in the Kagwaḍ Saka samvat 1316 (1394 AD)[39]. This appears to be the last epigraphical evidence so far known about the Yapaniya sect. Gradually the Yapaniyas dwindled into extinction and merged either the Digambar or Shwetambar sect.

~ ~ ~ ~


[1] कल्लाणे वरणयरे दुणि सए पंच उत्तरे जादे । जावणियसंघभावो सिरिकलसादो हु सेवडदो ॥ २९ ॥ - Shri Devsenacharya virachit Darshanasar (Edited by Pt. Nathuram Premi Pg. 13)

[2] In the Digambar tradition, a Bhattarak is a religious preceptor who heads of a religious institution, often called a "Math". He wears orange robes and manages the ‘Math’. He is placed above the layman and below an ascetic.

[3] अन्यदावसरं प्राप्य राज्ञ्या विज्ञापितो नृपः । स्वामिन्मद्गुरवः सन्ति गुरवोऽस्मत्पितुः पुरे ॥ ४ / १४० ॥
आनाययत तान्भक्त्या धर्मकर्माभिवृद्धये । निशम्य तद्वचो भूभृदाहूयामात्यमञ्जसा ॥ ४ / १४१ ॥
बुद्धिसागरनामानमप्रैषील्लातुमादरात् । आसाद्यासौ गुरून् भक्त्या प्रवरप्रश्रयान्वितः ॥ ४ / १४२ ॥
भूयोऽभ्यर्थनयामात्यः पत्तनं निजमानयत् । निशम्यागमनं तेषां मुदमाप परं नृपः ॥ ४ / १४३ ॥
महताडम्बरेणासावचालीद्वन्दितुं गुरून् । दूरादालोक्य तान्साधून्दध्यादिति सुविस्मयात् ॥ ४ / १४४ ॥
अहो निर्ग्रन्थताशून्यं किमिदं नौतनं मतम् । न मेऽत्र युज्यते गन्तुं पात्रदण्डादिमण्डितम् ॥ ४ / १४५ ॥
व्याघुट्य भूपतिस्तस्मादागत्य निजमन्दिरम् । भाषते स्म महादेवीं गुरवस्ते कुमार्गगाः ॥ ४ / १४६ ॥
जिनोदितबहिर्भूत - दर्शनाश्रितवृत्तयः । परिग्रहग्रहग्रस्तान्नैतान्मन्यामहे वयम् ॥ ४/१४७ ॥
सा तु मनोगतं राज्ञो ज्ञात्वाऽगाद्गुरुसन्निधिम् । नत्वा विज्ञापयामास विनयानतमस्तका ॥ ४ / १४८ ॥
भगवन्मदाग्रहादग्रयां गृह्णीतामरपूजिताम् । निर्ग्रन्थपदवीं पूतां हित्वा स मुदाऽखिलम् ॥ ४ / १४९ ॥
उररीकृत्य ते राज्ञ्या वचनं विदुषार्चितम् । तत्यजुः सकलं सङ्गं वसनादिकमञ्जसा ॥ ४ / १५० ॥
करे कमण्डलुं कृत्वा पिच्छिकां च जिनोदिताम् । जग्रहर्जिनमुद्रां ते धवलांशुकधारिणः ॥ ४ / १५१ ॥
विशांपतिस्ततो गत्वाऽभिमुखं भूरिसम्भ्रमात् । नत्वातिभक्तितः साधून्मध्येपत्तनमानयत् ॥ ४ / १५२ ॥
तदातिवेलं भूपाद्यैः पूजिता मानिताश्च तैः ।धृतं दिग्वाससां रूपमाचारः सितवाससाम् ॥ ४ / १५३ ॥
गुरुशिक्षातिगं लिङ्गं नटवद्भण्डिमास्पदम् । ततो यापनसङ्घोऽभूत्तेषां कापथवर्तिनाम् ॥ ४ / १५४ ॥ - Bhattarak Ratnanandi krut Bhadrabahu Charita

[4] Jain Dharm ka ek vilupt sampraday Yapaniya – Sagarmal Jain Abhinandan Granth - Dr. Sagarmal Jain (Pg. 615)

[5] Kya Botik Digambar Hai? - Aspect of Jainology Part 2 - Pundit Bechardas Doshi (Page 60)

[6] Shri Avashyak Bhashya by Acharya Jinbhadragani Kshamashraman, (composed in ~3rd CE AD and written down in 466 AD) states that a monk named Shivbhuti started the Botik sect in 82 AD. The scripture states that there was a person named Shivbhuti in the city of Rathavirapur near Mathura 609 years after nirvan of Prabhu Mahavir. He was employed by King Sinharath. He had successfully fought many battles on behalf of the king and had won laurels. Consequently, he turned to be very proud and used to come home very late in the night. On the complaint of his wife, one night his mother did not open the door and asked him to go elsewhere to teach him a lesson. Shivbhuti left his home and entered in a dwelling which was incidentally a Jain upasraya where Arya Krishnasuri was present. He repented for his sins and requested the Acharya to give him shelter and intitiate him as a monk. The Acharya initiated him the next day. Shivbhuti started wandering as a monk with others. After some time, he came to his native place. When the king was informed of his arrival, he sent a precious shawl (ratna kambal) to him as a gift. Possession of such a precious article by a monk was protested by Acharya but Shivbhuti did not pay any heed to his advice. Acharya then tore off the shawl. Shivbhuti did not agree with this and said that keeping the precious shawl was a possession then wearing clothes was also a possession and asserted that a follower of Jinakalp should strictly observe the principle of austerity including nudity. He gave up all clothing and was joined by Kaundinya and Kottavira as his disciples. His sister also joined him and remained nude but ordinary people thought of her as a prostitute. Therefore Shivbhuti forbade her from observing nudity.

[7] Jain Parampara aur Yapaniya Sangh –Dr. Ratanchandra Jain - Pg. 489

[8] " धृतं दिग्वाससां रूपमाचारः सितवाससाम्।” (श्लोक ४ / १५३) - Bhattarak Ratnanandi krut Bhadrabahu Charit

[9] उस्सग्गियलगकदस्स लिंगमुस्सग्गियं तयं चेव । अववावियलिंगस्स वि पसत्यमुवसग्गियं लिगं ॥ - Bhagwati Aradhana (76)

[9a] दिगम्बर सम्प्रदायकी पट्टावलियों, अभिलेखों, ग्रन्थ-प्रशस्तियों एवं श्रुतावतार आदिमें जो परम्पराएं उपलब्ध होती हैं, उनमें से किसी भी परम्परामें शिवार्य द्वारा उल्लिखित अपने गुरुओं- जिननन्दि, सर्वगुप्त और मित्रनन्दिके नाम नहीं मिलते। शाकटायन व्याकरण में- "उपसर्वगुप्तं व्याख्यातार: ।" अर्थात् समस्त व्याख्याता सर्वगुप्तसे नीचे हैं- उन जैसा कोई दूसरा व्याख्याता नहीं। बहुत सम्भव है कि इन्हीं सर्वगुप्तके चरणों में बैठकर शिवार्यने सूत्र और उनका अर्थ अच्छी तरह ग्रहण किया हो और तत्पश्चात् आराधनाकी रचना की हो। श्री प्रेमोजीने शाकटायनके उक्त उल्लेखिके आधारपर शिवार्य या शिवकोटि को यापनीय संघका आचार्य बताया है। उन्होंने अपने कथनकी पुष्टिके लिए निम्नलिखित प्रमाण उपस्थित किये है-
१. भगवती आराधनाकी उपलब्ध टीकाओंमें सबसे पुरानी टीका अपराजित सूरिकी है वे निश्चयसे यापनीय संघके हैं। ऐसी दशामें मूलग्रंथकर्ता शिवार्यको भी यापनीय होनेको अधिक सम्भावना है। 
२. यापनीय संघ श्वेताम्बरोंके समान सूत्रग्रन्धोंको मानता है और अपरा जित सूरिकी टोकामें सैकड़ों गाथाएँ ऐसी हैं जो सूत्रनन्थों में मिलती हैं।
३. दश स्थितकल्पोंके नामों वाली गाथा जातकल्पभाष्य और अनेक श्वेताम्बर टीकाओं और निर्मुक्तियों में मिलती हैं। आचार्य प्रभाचन्द्रने अपने प्रमेय कमलमार्तण्ड में भी इसे श्वेताम्बर गाथा माना है।
४. आराधनाकी ५६५-५६६ नम्बरकी गाथाएँ दिगम्बर मुनियोंके आचारसे मेल नहीं खाती। उनमें बीमार मुनिके लिए चार मुनियोंके द्वारा भोजन-पान लानेका निर्देश है।
५. आराधनाकी ४२८वीं गाथा आचारांग और जोतकल्प ग्रंथोका उल्लेख करत हैं, जो श्वेताम्बर सम्प्रदायके प्रसिद्ध ग्रंथ है। ६. शिवार्यने अपनेको पाणितलभोजी लिखा है। यापनीय संघके साधु श्वेताम्बर साधुओंके समान पात्रभोजी नहीं बल्कि दिगम्बरोंके समान करपात्र भोजी थे।
इस प्रकार श्री प्रेमीजीने शिवार्य या शिवकोटिको यापनीय संघका आचार्य मना है और इनके गुरुका नाम प्रशस्तिके आधारपर सर्वगुप्त सिद्ध किया है। (https://digjainwiki.org/wiki/acharya-shivarya-maharaj-ji-prachin/)

[10] क- अर्शो - भगन्दरादिषु गृहीतचीसे यतिर्न मुच्येत । अपसर्गे वा चीरे ग्दादिः संन्यस्यते चाते ॥ (१७) – Shaktayan, Strinirvan Prakaran

[11] चतुर्विर्ध उपधि गृह्णतां बहु प्रति लेखनता न तथा चेलस्य । - Vijamodaya Tika of Bhagwati Aradhana (423)

[11a]  Growth of Jaina Monasticism, Pg. 176

[12] यापनीयास्तु वेसरा गर्दभा इवोभयं मन्यन्ते, रत्नत्रयं पूजयन्ति कल्पं च वाचयन्ति, स्त्रीणां तद्भवे मोक्षं, केवलिजिनानां कवलाहारं, परशासने सग्रन्थानां मोक्षं च कथयन्ति । (11) - Shrutsagar Tika of Darshanpahud

[13] यापनीय तन्त्र--" णो खलु इत्थी अजीबो ण यावि अभव्या ण यावि दंस- विरोहिणी णो अमाणुसा अणारिउप्पत्ती णो असंखेज्जाउया णो अइकूरमई णो ण उवसन्तमोहा णो ण सुद्धाचारा णो असुद्ध बोंदी णो ववसायवज्जिया णो अपुष्वकरणविरोहिणी णो णवगुणठाणरहिया णो अजोगा लद्धीए गो अकल्लाणभायणं ति कहं न उत्तमधम्मसाहिंग ।" – Lalitvistara by Acharya Haribhadrasuri

[14] “ दिगम्बराः पुनर्नाग्न्यलिङ्गाः पाणिपात्राश्च । ते चतुर्धा, काष्ठासंघ -मूल संघमाथुरसंघ-गोप्यसंघभेदात् । काष्ठासंघे चमरीबालैः पिच्छिका, मूलसंघे मायूरपिच्छे . पिच्छिका, माथुरसंघे मूलतोऽपि पिच्छिका नाहताः, गोप्या मयूरपि- च्छिंकाः। आद्यास्त्रयोऽपि संघा वन्द्यमाना धर्मवृद्धिं भणन्ति, स्त्रीणां मुक्तिं केवलिनां भुक्ति सद्व्रतस्यापि तचीवरस्य मुक्ति च न मन्वते । गोप्यास्तु वन्द्यमाना धर्मलाभं भणन्ति । स्त्रीणां मुक्तिं केवलिनां भुक्तिं च मन्यन्ते । गोप्या यापनीय इत्यप्यु- च्यन्ते । सर्वेषां च भिक्षाटने भोजने च द्वात्रिंशदन्तराया मलाश्च चतुर्दश वर्जनीयाः । शेषमाचारे गुरौ च देवे च सर्व श्वेताम्बरैस्तुल्यम् । नास्ति तेषां मिथः शास्त्रेषु तर्केषु परो भेदः । "- Shad-darshan-samucchaya-Acharya Haribhadrasuri-Gunratnasuri Tika (Bharatiya Gyanpith), Pg. 161

[15] शाकटायनोऽपि यापनीय यतिग्रामग्रणी स्वोपज्ञ शब्दानुशासनवृत्तावादी भगवतः स्तुतिमेवमाह श्री वीरमृतं ज्योतिर्नत्वाऽऽदि सर्ववेदसाम् – Malaygiri Tika of Nandisutra – pg. 23

[16] एत कमावश्यकमध्यापय । इयमावश्यकमध्यापय । अमोघवृत्ति १-२-२०३-४ भवता खलु छेदसूत्रं वोढव्यम् । निर्युक्तिरधीष्व । निर्युक्तिरधीते । ४-४-१३३-४०
कालिकसूत्रस्यानध्यायदेशकालाः पठिताः । ३-२-४७
अथो क्षमाश्रमणैस्ते ज्ञानं दीयते १-२-२०१-Amoghvritti

[17] Acharanga Sutra, Prof. Ravjibhai Devraj, Verse 434

[18] Jain Dharma ka Yapaniya Sampraday, Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Pg. 68

[19] Jain Sahitya Ka Itihas, Pt. Nathuram Premi, Pg. 45

[19a] Tests prescribed by Dr. Sagarmal Jain & Dr. Ratanchandra Jain to determine whether a scripture belonged to Yapaniya sect or not - 


Dr. Sagarmal Jain [19a]

Dr. (Prof.) Ratanchandra Jain [19b]


A scripture which has references in favour of Stri Mukti and Kewali Bhukti despite the emphasis on nudity

A scripture in which Stri Mukti (liberation of females), Par shasan mukti (liberation of person of any other tradition), Sagranth mukti (liberation of a clothbearer/ householder) and Kevalibhukti (consumption of food by Kevalis) are propounded or where they are not prohibited.


A scripture which has references mentioning the liberation of a householder or a monk of any other tradition

A scripture in which Achelta (nudity) and Sachelta (cloth bearers) are considered equal for the path to salvation and there is no prohibition on Savastramukti.


A scripture which believes in the existence of Ang-Upang Agams as accepted in the Shwetambar tradition

A scripture in which Shwetambar Agams have been accepted and quotations have been given from them in support of Yapaniya sect.



A scripture which has references of Garbhapahar (transfer of womb from Devananda to Trishla) & wedding of Lord Mahavir

A scripture which has references of Garbhapahar (transfer of womb from Devananda to Trishla) & wedding of Lord Mahavir


A scripture which considers a Kshullak not as a householder but as an exceptional Linga-dhari Muni

A scripture which considers a Kshullak not as a householder but as an exceptional Linga-dhari Muni


A scripture which has references of bringing food to sick or old monks using Patras

A scripture which has references of bringing food to sick or old monks using Patras (However, if a householder brings food to old / sick monks without usage of patras, it cannot be termed as Yapaniya)


A scripture which accepts female Chedopasthapniya Charitra (i.e. acceptance of the implantation of the Mahavrats by females)

A scripture in which a woman is considered worthy of Tadbhav Mukti (liberation in the same birth) and is considered worthy of the character of the Chhedopasthapaniya by Nischayana (not by treatment), that is, worthy of the Mahavrats.


A scripture which has mention of Ganas which were prevalent in Yapaniya sect

A scripture whose author belongs to a Gana prevalent in Yapaniya sect and its contents are not opposite to the principles of Yapaniya sect


A scripture whose author is related to those Acharyas who were the ancestors as mentioned in Shwetambar and Yapaniya sect

A scripture in which clothes, utensils, etc. are not considered as Parigrah


A scripture where it is specifically mentioned to be of the Yapaniya sect

A scripture which, though expounding the Shwetambar principles, is not a Shwetambar text, i.e. which the Shwetambars have not considered as their own text.



A scripture which does not prohibit Anyadrishtiprasansa (praise of other religions/ sects) and Anyadrishtisanstava (support of other religions/ sects).



A scripture in which the word 'Manushyini' has not been used in the sense of both Dravyastri and Bhavastri but only in the meaning of Dravyastri.




A scripture which lists 20 reasons for Tirthankar prakruti Bhandhak and not 16.



A scripture in which the number of heavens called 'Kalpa' are considered to be only 12 instead of both 16 and 12.




A scripture in which the nine heavens called 'Anudish' are not accepted.




A scripture in which liberation is accepted even without the ultimate development of the gunasthanakram. Eg. savastramukti, grihasth mukti, paratirthik mukti, the origin of Samyagdrishti jiv in women and the attainment of the position of Tirthankara by women)



A scripture in which Vedtraya and Vedvaimashya are invalidated

Sources:  Jain Dharma ka Yapaniya Sampraday, Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Pg. 81-82 & Jain Parampara aur Yapaniya Sangh –Dr. Ratanchandra Jain - Pg. 588-590

[20] Jain Dharma ka Yapaniya Sampraday, Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Pg. 68

[21] Jain Dharma ka Yapaniya Sampraday, Dr. Sagarmal Jain, Pg. 71

[22] Jain Sahitya Ka Itihas, Pt. Nathuram Premi

[23] Jain Dharma ka Yapaniya Sampraday, Dr. Sagarmal Jain

[24] More Light on the Yapaniya Sangha, by A.N. Upadhye

[25] Jain Parampara aur Yapaniya Sangh –Dr. Ratanchandra Jain - Pg. 589

[26] Royal Patronage of Jainism under the Kadambas of Banavāsi: c. Fifth and Sixth Centuries CE by Vibha Tayal

[27] Royal Patronage of Jainism under the Kadambas of Banavāsi: c. Fifth and Sixth Centuries CE by Vibha Tayal

[28] Growth of Jaina Monasticism, Pg. 170-171

[29] Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol XII, Pg. 61

[30] Epigraphia Indica, Vol IX, No. 6

[31] Journal of the B. B. R. A. S., X, 71-72, Page. 206-7.

[32] Growth of Jaina Monasticism, Pg. 172

[33] Growth of Jaina Monasticism, Pg. 172

[34] Growth of Jaina Monasticism, Pg. 173

[35] Growth of Jaina Monasticism, Pg. 173

[36] Growth of Jaina Monasticism, Pg. 170

[37] गोपुच्छिकः श्वेतावासा द्राविडो यापनीयकः । निः पिच्छिकश्चेति पञ्चैते जैनाभासाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ १० ॥ - Nitisar by Bhattarak Indranandi

[38] "या पञ्चजैनाभासैरञ्चलिकारहितापि नग्नमूर्तिरपि प्रतिष्ठिता सा न वन्दनीया, न चार्चनीया । या तु जैनाभासरहितैः साक्षादार्हतसङ्गैः प्रतिष्ठिता चक्षुः स्तनादिषु विकाररहिता नन्दिसङ्घ-सेनसङ्घ-देवसङ्घ-सिंहस समुपन्यस्ता सा वन्दनीया।" (10) Bodhpahud Tika by Shrutsagarsuri

[39] Annaraya, Miiji., op. cit., p.84.


  1. Yapniya sect ki murtiyo ki alag pehchan h ye sab murtiya yapniya k nahi h ho to inscription ki photo beje

    1. All the idols have inscriptions wherein the Gana of the Yapaniya sect/the name of Yapaniya sect have been duly mentioned. All the pictures of the idols along with the inscriptions are available in public domain. The inscription in Cover Picture has been deciphered by Dr. Ravikumar K Navalagunda (Ref. TOI), inscription in the image of Lord Parshwanath from Makodu village has been deciphered by Nithin HP (Ref. Bangalore Mirror), Inscriptions of idols from Karla Latur have been deciphered by Dr. Sujata Shubhash and the inscription of two images from Hopari Kolhapur have been deciphered by Dr. Hampa Nagarajaiah,


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